Metabolic Pathways

BI 1240


Metabolic Pathways

According to New Revised Syllabus w.e.f. 2013-14 PUNE, Maharashtra (INDIA)

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1. Bioenergetics

1.1 Thermodynamics as applied to biological systems     

1.2 Some thermodynamic terms in biological systems 

1.3 The laws of thermodynamics   

1.4 Limitations of entropy criteria and need of free energy concept  

1.5 Need to define standard free energy change DGo’ 

1.6 Methods for calculating free energy changes in biochemical reactions   

1.7 Method 1: Calculation of free energy change from equilibrium constant  

1.8 Exergonic-endergonic coupling of biochemical reactions   

1.9 Method II: Calculation of free energy change from standard reduction potential     

1.10 Chemical potential     

1.11 Illustrative numerical problems    

1.12 Comparison of biological and physical system in relation to the application of thermodynamic principle

1.13 Comparison of enthalpy and entropy 

1.14 High energy bonds and high energy compounds    

2. Enzymes    

2.1 Introduction     

2.2 Properties 

2.3 Enzyme activity  

2.4 Specificity of enzyme action 

2.5 Active site of enzyme  

2.6 Hypothesis regarding enzyme-substrate interaction  

2.7 Transition state stabilization (Haldane and Pauling)

2.8 Classification of enzymes    

2.9 Enzyme kinetics  

2.10 Enzyme inhibition

2.11 Reversible inhibition  

2.12 Allosteric inhibition  

2.13 Irreversible inhibition

2.14 Isoenzymes 

2.15 Purification of enzymes

2.16 Criteria of purity     

3. Metabolism 

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Types of metabolic pathways  

3.3 Regulation 

4. Carbohydrate Metabolism

4.1 Introduction     

4.2 Major pathways of carbohydrate metabolism

4.3 Glycolysis 

4.4 Fates of pyruvate

4.5 Inhibitors of glycolysis     

4.6 Regulation of glycolysis     

4.7 Conversion of pyruvate to acetyl COA     

4.8 Citric acid cycle

4.9 Anaplerotic reactions of TCA cycle 

4.11 Glyoxylate cycle 

4.12 Oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport chain

4.13 Gluconeogenesis  

4.14 Glycogen metabolism    

4.15 Glycogenesis     

4.16 Glycogenolysis   

4.17 Feeder pathway   

4.18 Starch synthesis 

4.19 Sucrose synthesis

4.20 HMP shunt  

4.21 Entner-doudoroff pathway (ED Pathway) 

4.22 Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism    

5. Photosynthesis and Photorespiration

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Significance of photosynthesis to mankind

5.3 Photosynthetic pigments

5.4 Photosystems     

5.5 Non-cyclic photophosphorylation  

5.6 Cyclic photophosphorylation  

5.7 Cytochrome bf complex links photosystems II and I    

5.8 Bacterial photosynthesis     

5.9 Calvin cycle     

5.10 Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in plants

5.11 Photorespiration and glycolate metabolism

6. Lipid Metabolism 

6.1 Introduction     

6.2 Functions of lipids    

6.3 Fate of dietary lipid  

6.4 Fatty acid oxidation   

6.5 Oxidation of palmitate 

6.6 Oxidation of odd chain fatty acids 

6.7 Oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids (One Double Bond)

6.8 Oxidation of unsaturated fatty acid (Two Double Bonds)

6.9 B-oxidation of fatty acids in peroxisomes

6.10 Regulation of fatty acid oxidation 

6.11 A-oxidation of fatty acids 

6.12 W-oxidation of fatty acids 

6.13 Ketone bodies    

6.14 Biosynthesis of fatty acids  

6.15 Regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis    

6.16 Elongation of saturated fatty acid 

6.17 Desaturation of fatty acid chains  

6.18 Biosynthesis of triacylglycerol (Cytosol)

6.19 Metabolism of phospholipids  

6.20 Synthesis of spingolipids    

6.21 Degradation of sphingomyelins

7. Amino Acid Metabolism  

7.1 Introduction     

7.2 Metabolic fates of amino groups    

7.3 General aspects of amino acids metabolism

7.4 Glutamine carries ammonia to liver 

7.5 Alanine carries ammonia from muscles to liver  

7.6 Urea cycle 

7.7 Pathways for amino acid degradation

7.8 Ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids

7.9 Nitrogen cycle   

7.10 Biosynthesis of amino acids  

7.11 Regulation of amino acid synthesis 

8. Nucleotide Metabolism  

8.1 Introduction     

8.2 De novo synthesis of purines 

8.3 Regulation of purine nucleotide synthesis

8.4 De novo synthesis of pyrimidines  

8.5 Regulation of synthesis of pyrimidines   

8.6 Formation of purine nucleoside diphosphates and triphosphates    

8.7 Deoxyribnonucleotides are obtained from ribonucleotides    

8.8 Formation of thymidylate     

8.9 Degradation of purines and pyrimidines   

8.10 Salvage pathway for purine and pyrimidine nucleotides

8.11 Disorders of purine and pyrimidine metabolism  

8.12 Chemotherapeutic drugs 

9. Integration and Regulation of Metabolism 

9.1 Introduction     

9.2 Energy demand and supply     

9.3 Integration of major metabolic pathways of energy metabolism     

9.4 Organ specialization and metabolic integration 

9.5 Metabolism in starvation     

9.6 Regulation of metabolic pathways

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