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Molecular Biology

BI 1158

New

Molecular Biology

Author: Simi Georg, Nivedita Das

3rd Edition 2012

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Contents

1. DNA as the Genetic Material  

1.1 Introduction     

1.2 Evidences for DNA as the genetic material

1.3 The question of RNA as a genetic material

1.4 Properties of the genetic material 

2. Nucleic Acids-Structure, Properties and Function   

2.1 Introduction     

2.2 DeoxyriBo nucleic acid (DNA) 

2.3 Chemical compositions  

2.4 Physical and chemical structure of DNA   

2.5 Molecular structure    

2.6 Watson and crick’s model of DNA molecule 

2.7 Anti-parallel orientation of the two strands of DNA  

2.8 Variation of base composition of the DNA of different organisms  

2.9 Properties of DNA

2.10 Functions  

2.11 Different forms of DNA

2.12 Mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA  

2.13 Satellite DNA    

2.14 RNA Ribonucleic Acid   

2.15 Messenger RNA or nuclear RNA 

2.16 Ribosomal RNA (r-RNA)  

2.17 Transfer RNA (t-RNA)   

3. Organization of Genomes

3.1 Introduction     

3.2 Organization of bacterial genome   

3.3 Organization of genes in bacteria  

3.4 Organization of phage genome 

3.5 Organizations of genes in phages   

3.6 Eukaryotic genome an overview

3.7 Organization of genome in organelles

3.8 Organization of the human genome   

3.9 Gene organization and expression   

3.10 Expression levels of genes of an organism monitored

4. Eukaryotic Genomes

4.1 Introduction     

4.2 Prokaryotic chromosome 

4.3 Eukaryotic chromosomes 

4.4 Special types of chromosomes 

4.5 Chromosomal organization     

4.6 Variations in centromere organization among species or DNA needed for a centromere

4.7 The ends of chromosomes: Telomeres

4.8 DNA packaging in chromatin and chromosome

4.9 Organization of chromatin    

4.10 Replication of histone octomer/nucleosomal fibre   

4.11 Chromotin remodelling

4.12 Other modification of histones     

4.13 Other chromatin proteins (Non-Histone Proteins)

4.14 Heterochromatin  

4.15 Euchromatin

5. Definition of Gene     

5.1 Introduction     

5.2 Definition of the gene 

5.3 Genes codes for particular proteins or polypeptides  

5.4 Gene concept     

5.5 Molecular structure of gene  

5.6 The nature of prokaryotic/bacterial genes    

5.7 The nature of eukaryotic genes     

5.8 One gene may encode more than one protein

5.9 Gene families    

5.10 House keeping gene, luxury genes and pseudo genes    

5.11 Regulatory sequences   

6. Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

6.1 Introduction     

6.2 Central dogma of molecular biology 

6.3 DNA replication  

6.4 Types of DNA replication     

6.5 An experiment to prove semiconservative mode of DNA replication (“Meselson-stahl Experiment”) 

6.6 Prokaryotic DNA replication in detail    

6.7 Eukaryotic DNA replication in detail     

6.8 Models of DNA replication    

7. DNA Damage and Repair, Mutations  

7.1 Introduction     

7.2 Mutation an overview   

7.3 Mechanism of DNA repair

8. Transcription and Regulation of Transcription  

8.1 Introduction     

8.2 Prokaryotic rna polymerase   

8.3 Prokaryotic transcription in detail

8.4 Transcription in eukaryotes  

8.5 Post transcriptional modification  

8.6 Inhibitors of transcription  

8.7 Regulation of transcription  

9. Genetic Code, Protein Synthesis    

9.1 The genetic code 

9.2 Properties of genetic code   

9.3 Degeneracy of genetic code   

9.4 Chain initiation and chain termination codons initiation code    

9.5 Cracking of genetic code     

9.6 Genetic code is altered in mitochondria  

9.7 Protein synthesis

9.8 Transfer RNAs or t-RNAs in translation  

9.9 Ribosome in translation

9.10 Organization of mRNA in translation and signals for initiation of translation    

9.11 Genetic code on mRNA are read in triplets

9.12 Reading frames  

9.13 Translation process in detail

9.14 Regulation of translation    

9.15 Inhibitors of protein synthesis    

10. Post-translational Modifications and Transport of Proteins

10.1 Introduction     

10.2 Chaperones and protein folding

10.3 Enzymes and protein folding  

10.4 Protein cleavage 

10.5 Covalent modification of proteins  

10.6 Proteins sorting and transport     

10.7 Transport of rnas within the eukaryotic cells 

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