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Author : Dr. Hema Sane, Veena Arbat

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About the Book

Biology is the science of life and living organisms. Biology is relevant to our everyday experience in Medical advances, Addressing needs of growing human population, Challenges of decreasing rate of biodiversity and Biotechnology advances. Students should therefore have a solid grounding of biological concepts.

The Text Book of Biology for XII std. is according to New Revised Syllabus. The approach of the book is methodical. The authors have taken a lot of care to explain topics in easy and simple language considering the fact that the students are young and do not have much exposure to complex biological terms. At the end of each chapter summaries and Exercise questions are provided to sustain and extend students' interests. Diagrams, Tables, Charts are provided so that students understand concepts better.


1. Genetic Basis of Inheritance

1. What is Inheritance?

2. Life Sketch of Mendel     

3. After Mendel : Neomendelism

4. Gene Interaction    

5. Pleiotropy    

6. Polygenic Inheritance     

7. Mendelism and Neo-mendelism at a Glance  

2. Gene: Its Nature, Expression and Regulation

1. DNA - As Genetic Material 

2. Structure of DNA    

3. DNA Replication     

4. Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)    

5. Central Dogma of Molecular Biology    

6. Gene Expression and Gene Regulation   

7. Modern Concept of Gene

3. Biotechnology: Process and Application

1. Biotechnology - What is it?

2. Recombinant DNA Technology

3. Gene Cloning  

4. Viruses as Vectors  

5. Transposable Elements/ Transposons    

6. Transgenic Organisms / Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) Man Made Life

7. Practical Applications of Biotechnology     

8. Transgenic Plants and Biosafety Issues

9. Biopiracy 

4. Enhancement in Food Production

1. Introduction  

2. Why is the Need?    

3. Objectives of Plant Breeding    

4. Green Revolution    

5. The Gene Revolution against Green Revolution

6. Tissue Culture

7. Single Cell Proteins

8. Biofortification  

5. Microbes in Human Welfare

1. Microbes at Home    

2. Microbes in Industries    

3. Microbes and Sewage Treatment   

4. Microbes in the Biogas Production

5. Microbes as Bio-fertilizers     

6. Microbes as Bio-control Agents 

6. Photosynthesis

1. Nutrition     

2. What is Photosynthesis?   

3. Site of Photosynthesis    

4. Photosynthetic Pigments and their Role

5. Nature of Light     

6. Light Dependent Phase

7. Light Independent Phase - The Dark Phase    

8. Chemiosmotic Hypothesis   

9. Photorespiration    

10. Factors affecting Photosynthesis     

11. Law of Limiting Factors  

12. Significance of Photosynthesis 

7. Respiration

1. ATP as the Energy of the Cell Currency

2. Equation of Respiration   

3. Glycolysis - Salient Features   

4. Aerobic Respiration 

5. Anaerobic Respiration

6. Respiratory Quotient (R.Q.)     

7. Respiration - as an Amphibolic Pathway

8. Significance of Respiration  

8. Reproduction in Plants

1. Asexual Reproduction in Lower Plants  

2. Sexual Reproduction 

3. Fruit 

9. Organisms and Environment-I

1. Ecosystem

2. Habitat and Niche   

3. Ecosystem Productivity    

4. Ecological Pyramids 

5. Nutrient Cycles in the Ecosystem

6. Ecological Succession     

7. Ecological Services 

8. Environmental Issues 

10. Origin and Evolution of Life

1. Origin of Life

2. Organic Evolution   

3. Mechanism of Evolution    

4. Origin and Evolution of Human Being 

11. Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance

1. Chromosomal Theory  

2. Chromosomes   

3. Linkage and Crossing Over 

4. Sex Determination   

5. Sex-linked Inheritance    

6. Mendelian Disorders in Humans 

12. Gene Engineering and Genomics

1. DNA Fingerprinting  

2. Genomics and Human Genome Project     

3. Biotechnological Applications in Health

4. Transgenic Animals 

13. Human Health and Diseases

1. Concept of Immunology     

2. Vaccines

3. Structure of Antibody     

4. Pathogens and Parasites   

5. Adolescence, Drug and Alcohol Abuse   

6. Cancer and AIDS 

14. Animal Husbandry

1. Management of Farm Animals

2. Dairy   

3. Poultry 

4. Animal Breeding     

5. Apiculture or Bee Keeping 

6. Fisheries     

7. Sericulture   

8. Lac Culture 

15. Circulation

1. Blood Composition and Coagulation     

2. Structure and Pumping Action of Heart 

3. Blood Vessels 

4. Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation    

5. Heart Beat and Pulse

6. Blood Related Disorders   

7. Lymphatic System  

16. Excretion and Osmoregulation

1. Introduction  

2. Modes of Excretion  

3. Excretory System    

4. Composition and Formation of Urine    

5. Role of Kidney in Osmoregulation

6. Role of Other Organs in Excretion 

17. Control and Co-ordination

1. Nervous System

2. Endocrine System 

18. Human Reproduction

1. Reproductive System in Male and Female

2. Menstrual Cycle     

3. Production of Gametes

4. Fertilization 

5. Embryo Development upto Three Germinal Layers     

6. Pregnancy, Placenta, Parturition and Lactation    

7. Reproductive Health 

19. Ecology and Environment

1. Population and Adaptations

2. Population Interaction    

3. Population Attributes     

4. Biodiversity and Conservation   

5. Environmental Issues