Structural Botany
  • Structural Botany

Structural Botany

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According to New Revised Syllabus w.e.f. 2010 PUNE, Maharashtra (INDIA)

Text Book of Structural Botany


Author : Dr. Hema Sane, Mahajan, Auti, Thakur & Waghchaure

Book ID : 1253

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About the Book

Botany is the scientific study of plants. It examines their structure, growth, reproduction, development, diseases, ecology and evolution and the integral roles that plants play in the functioning of both terrestrial and marine ecosystems.

This text book entitled ‘Structural Botany (Anatomy, Embryology and Palynology)’ is divided in 3 parts the first part is devoted towards Anatomy, the second part pertains to Embryology and the third part explains Palynology. Plant Anatomy or phytotomy is the general term used for the study of the internal structure of plants. Embryology is the study of the embryo development. Palynology is the study of plant pollen, spores and certain microscopic plankton organisms in both living and fossil form.

Botanists study how plants evolve and adapt to changing climate and environments as well as the ecological interactions between plants and other organisms, and plays an active role in understanding and conserving biodiversity. Botany comprises various sub-disciplines each studying a different aspect of plants.

This book is for the students of S.Y. B.Sc. General Science and is strictly as per the syllabus of University of  Pune. However the book will benefit students who are pursuing Botany or any other life sciences. Diagrams and charts are included for the benefit of the students and to explain topics in detail.

Studying Botany will help students who desire to pursue a career as a Botanist or in any other life sciences.



1. Introduction to Plant Anatomy

1.1 Introduction     

1.2 Importance of plant anatomy  

2. Plant Tissues

2.1 Meristematic tissue (Meristos-Divisible)     

2.2 Ground tissue    

2.3 Vascular tissues 

2.4 Secretory tissue 

3. Epidermal Tissue System

3.1 Introduction     

3.2 Structure and function of epidermis

3.3 Stomata    

3.4 Epidermal outgrowths   

3.5 Functions of epidermal tissue system     

4. Mechanical Tissue System

4.1 Introduction     

4.2 Why is the need of mechanical tissue system?   

4.3 Tissues providing mechanical support     

4.4 Principles involved in distribution of mechanical tissuees 

4.5 Distribution of mechanical tissues 

4.4 Inflexibility in stems and leaves  

4.5 Incompressibility in stems   

4.6 Inextensibility in roots     

5. Normal Secondary Growth

5.1 Introduction and need  

5.2 Normal secondary growth in annual and perennial stem 

5.3 Structure and function of periderm, bark, tyloses, growth rings and lenticels

6. Anomalous Secondary Growth

6.1 Causes of variations (Causes Leading to Anomalous Secondary Growth)    

6.2 Secondary growth in bignonia stem (Dicot Stem) and raphanus (Dicot Root)     

6.3 Secondary growth in dracaena (Monocot Stem)    


1. Definition and Scope   

1.1 Introduction     

1.2 Scope

2. Microsporangium

2.1 Introduction     

2.2 Structure of tetrasporangiate anther

3. Microsporogenesis

3.1 Process    

3.2 Cytokinesis and its types    

3.3 Types of microspore tetrad   

4. Male Gametophyte 

4.1 Structure of pollen grain    

4.2 Development of male gametophyte    

5. Megasporangium

5.1 Structure of megasporangium  

5.2 Types of ovule   

6. Megasporogenesis

6.1 Megasporogenesis 

6.2 Magasporogenesis and types of megaspore tetrads

7. Female Gametophyte

7.1 Structure and development of female gametophyte i.e. typical embryo sac (Polygonum Type) 

7.2 Types and development of embryo-sacs     

8. Fertilization

8.1 Fertilization    

8.2 Double fertilization   

9. Endosperm types

9.1 Endosperm  

9.2 Types of endosperm formation 

9.3 Importance of endosperm

10. Embryo

10.1 Formation of embryo    

10.2 Structure of the mature dicot embryo     


1. Definition, Applications and Importance  

1.1 What is palynology?    

1.2 Applications and importance of palynology

2. Pollen Structure

2.1 Pollen morphology

2.2 Aperture   

2.3 Exine stratification   

3. NPC System

3.1 NPC system