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# Fluid Mechanics And Machinery

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A text book as per"G" Scheme

# FLUID MECHANICS & MACHINERY

Authors: Tanweer Sohel, Rupendra.

Mechanical Engineering Group

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Contents

1. Properties of Fluid and Fluid Pressure

1. Introduction

2. Properties of Fluid

3. Types of Fluids

Solved Examples

4. Fluid Pressure (P)

4.1 Pressure Intensity

4.2 Pascal’s Law

4.4 Atmospheric Pressure

4.5 Absolute Pressure

4.6 Gauge Pressure

4.7 Vacuum Pressure (Suction Pressure / Negative Pressure)

5. Pressure Measurement

6. Surfaces Submerged in Liquid

Solved Examples

2. Fluid Flow

1. Introduction

2. Types of Fluid Flow

2.2 Uniform and Non-uniform Flow

2.3 Laminar and Turbulent Flow

2.4 Compressible and In-compressible Flow

2.5 Rotational and Irrotational Flow

2.6 One, Two and Three Dimensional Flow

3. Discharge and Continuity Equation

3.1 Discharge or Rate of Flow (Q)

3.2 Continuity Equation or Continuity Theorem

5.  Bernoulli’s  Theorem

5.1 Vena Contracta

5.2 Hydraulic Coefficients

6. Venturimeter

6.1 Derivation for Discharge Formula for Venturimeter

7. Orifice Meter or Orifice Plate

7.1 Construction and Working of Orifice Meter

7.2 Derivation of Discharge Formula for Orifice Meter

8. Pitot Tube

Solved Problems

3. Flow through Pipes

1. Fluid Friction 2

1.1 Laws of Fluid Friction for Laminar Flow

1.2 Laws of Fluid Friction for Turbulent Flow

2. Head Losses in the Pipe

2.1 Major Energy Losses (Major Head Losses)

3. HGL and TEL

4. Power Transmitted through the Pipe

5. Water Hammer

Solved Examples

4. Impact of Jets

1. Jet of Water

2. Impact of Jet on Flat Plate

3. Impact of Jet on Series of Vanes

4. Impact of Jet on Curved Vanes

4.1 Impact of Jet on Curved Vanes, Jet Strikes at Centre

4.2 Impact of Jet on Curved Vanes if Jet Strikes Tangentially

4.3 Procedure for Drawing Velocity Triangles at Inlet and Outlet

Solved Examples

5. Hydraulic Turbines

1. Introduction

2. General Layout of Hydro-electric Power Plant

3. Features of Hydro-electric Power Plant

4. Classification of Turbines

5. Selection of Turbines

5.1 Pelton Wheel Turbine

5.2 Francis Turbine

5.3 Kaplan Turbine (Axial Flow Reaction Turbine)

6. Draft Tubes

7. Calculation of Workdone, Power, Efficiency of Turbine

7.1 Pelton Turbine (Impulse Turbine)

7.2 Francis Turbine (Reaction Turbine)

8. Comparisons

8.1 Francis and Kaplan Turbine

8.2 Impulse and Reaction Turbine

Solved Examples

6. Pumps

1. Centrifugal Pumps

1.1 Construction of a Centrifugal Pump

1.2 Principle of Working of Centrifugal Pump

1.3 Concept of Multistage

1.4 Priming and its Methods

1.5 Cavitation

1.6 Workdone by Impeller of a Centrifugal Pump on Water

1.8 Performance Characteristics of Centrifugal Pump

1.9 Troubleshooting of Centrifugal Pump

1.10 Submersible Pump17

1.11 Jet Pump

Solved Examples

2. Reciprocating Pump

2.1 Construction and Working Principle of a Single Acting Reciprocating Pump

2.2 Construction and Working of Double Acting Reciprocating Pump

2.3 Concept of Slip and Negative Slip

2.4 Cavitation and Separation

2.5 Use of Air Vessel

2.6 Working of the Air Vessel

2.7 Functions and Advantages of Air Vessel

2.8 Indicator Diagram

2.9 Comparison between Centrifugal Pump and Reciprocating Pump

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