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Metabolism

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Specific References

According to SPPU New Revised CBCS Syllabus w.e.f. 2020-21

Metabolism

SY Biotechnology Sem-III

Author: Dr. Anamika Jha, Dr. Anita Pande

ISBN: 978-81-946618-8-7

Price: 185/-

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Contents

1. Introduction to Metabolism

1. Introduction

1.1  Catabolism

1.2  Anabolism

2. Types of Metabolic Pathways

3. Regulation

3.1  Regulation by Allosteric Enzymes

3.2 Regulation by Hormones

3.3  Regulation by Different Concentration of Enzyme

3.4 Regulation by Covalent Modification

4. ATP Energy Cycle

4.1 Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

4.2 Structure of ATP Molecule

4.3 Representation of ATP Energy Cycle

5. Chemistry of Metabolism

5.1 Important Types of Reactions in Metabolism

6. Concept of Bioenergetic

6.1 Gibb's Free Energy

6.2 Free Energy Changes during Reactions

7. Oxidation - Reduction Reactions and Redox Potential

7.1 Biological Oxidation - Reduction Reactions

7.2 Biological Electron Carriers

7.3 Types of Electron Transfer

7.4 Redox Potential

8. Phosphoanhydride Bond and ATP

9. Need for an Expression to Calculate Physiological DG

9.1 Methods for Calculating Free Energy Changes in Biochemical Reactions

9.2 Biochemical Equilibrium Constant, K’eq

9.3 Thermodynamic Relation between K and DGo'

9.4  Characteristics of DGo'eq and K Relationship

9.5 Calculation of DG

9.6  Characteristics of DG Calculations

9.7 Exergonic - Endergonic Coupling of Biochemical Reactions

9.8 Examples of Exergonic - Endergonic Coupling

2. Lipid Metabolism

1. Introduction

2. Functions of Lipids

3. Fate of Dietary Lipid

3.1 Lumen of Small Intestine

3.2 Epithelial Cells

3.3 Adipose Tissue

3.4 Liver

4. Fatty Acid Oxidation

4.1 Activation of Fatty Acids occurring in Cytosol

4.2 Transport of Fatty Acids into Mitochondria

4.3 b - Oxidation proper in the Mitochondrial Matrix

5. Oxidation of Palmitate

6. Oxidation of Odd Chain Fatty Acids

7. Oxidation of Unsaturated Fatty Acids (One Double Bond)

8. Oxidation of Unsaturated Fatty Acid (Two Double Bonds)

9. b - Oxidation of Fatty Acids in Peroxisomes

10. Ketone Bodies

10.1 Ketogenesis

10.2 Utilization of Ketone Bodies

10.3 Ketosis

11. Cholesterol Metabolism

11.1 Biological Significance of Cholesterol

11.2 Cholesterol Synthesis

12. Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids

12.1 Production of Acetyl CoA and NADPH in Cytosol

12.2 Conversion of Acetyl CoA to Malonyl CoA

12.3 Reactions of Fatty Acid Synthase Complex

13. Elongation of Saturated Fatty Acid

14. Desaturation of Fatty Acid Chains

15. Biosynthesis of Triacylglycerol (Cytosol)

3. Carbohydrate Metabolism

1. Introduction

2. Major Pathways of Carbohydrate Metabolism

3. Glycolysis

3.1 Salient Features

3.2  Overall Reaction of Glycolysis

4. Fates of Pyruvate

4.1 Lactate Fermentation

4.2 Alcohol Fermentation

5. Inhibitors of Glycolysis

6. Regulation of Glycolysis

7. Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA (Pyruvate Metabolism)

8. Citric Acid Cycle

8.1 Overall Reaction

8.2 Energetics of TCA Cycle

8.3 Inhibitors of Krebs Cycle

8.4 Regulation of Citric Acid Cycle

9. Glycogen Metabolism

10. Glycogenesis

10.1  Formation of Branches in Glycogen

10.2 Glycogenin, a Protein acts as a Primer

11. Glycogenolysis

11.1  Fate of Glucose-6-Phosphate

11.2 Regulation of Glycogenolysis and Glycogenesis

12. HMP Shunt (Pentose Phosphate Pathway)

12.1 Significance of HMP Shunt

12.2 Oxidative Phase

12.3 Non-oxidative Phase

12.4 Regulation of Pentose Phosphate Pathway

4. Amino Acid Metabolism

1. Introduction

2. Metabolic Fates of Amino Groups

3. General Aspects of Amino Acids Metabolism

3.1 Transamination

3.2 Deamination

4. Urea Cycle

4.1 Regulation of Urea Cycle

5. Pathways for Amino Acid Degradation

5.1 Ten Amino Acids are Degraded to Acetyl CoA

5.2 Five Amino Acids are Converted to a - Ketoglutarate

5.3 Four Amino Acids are converted to Succinyl - CoA

5.4 Two Amino Acids are Degraded to Oxaloacetate

6. Ketogenic and Glucogenic Amino Acids

7. Biosynthesis of Amino Acids

7.1 a - Ketoglutarate gives rise to Glutamate, Glutamine, Proline and Arginine

7.2 Three Amino Acids are Derived from 3 - Phosphoglycerate

7.3 Three Non-essential and Six Essential Amino Acids are Synthesized from Oxaloacetate and Pyruvate

7.4 Three Amino Acids are Synthesized from Phosphonenol Pyruvate and Erythrose-4-Phosphate

7.5 Histidine Biosynthesis uses Precursors of Purine Biosynthesis

8. Regulation of Amino Acid Synthesis

9. Amino Acid as a Biosynthetic Precursor

5. Nucleotide Metabolism

1. Introduction

2. De Novo Synthesis of Purines

2.1 Biosynthesis of Inosine Monophosphate (IMP)

2.2 Synthesis of AMP and GMP from IMP

3. De Novo Synthesis of Pyrimidines

4. Formation of Purine Nucleoside Diphosphates and Triphosphates

5. Deoxyribonucleotides are obtained from Ribonucleotides

6. Formation of Thymidylate

7. Degradation of Purines and Pyrimidines

8. Salvage Pathway for Purine and Pyrimidine Nucleotide