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Metrology and Quality Control

1417

New

Metrology and Quality Control

Author: Dinesh Lohar

T.Y.Diploma Sem V, Mechanical Engineering Group, MSBTE

BI: 1417

ISBN: 978-93-5016-261-3

Solved Question Papers upto 2015 Winter

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Contents

1. Metrology Basics

1. Introduction

1.1 Definition of Metrology

1.2  Scope/Objectives of Metrology

2. Categories of Metrology

2.1 According to Field of Application

2.2 According to Principles

2.3 According to Quantity to be Measured

3. Need of Inspection in Industries

4. Important Characteristics of Instruments

5.  Sources of Errors

5.1 Types of Errors

5.2 Controllable / Systematic Error

5.3 Random Errors

6. Factors Affecting Accuracy

7. Selection of Instrument

8. Precautions Getting Higher Precision and Accuracy

9. Concept Least count of Measuring Instruments

9.1 Least Count of Vernier Caliper

9.2 Least count of micrometer

2. Standards and Comparators

1. Introduction

2. Standards for Linear Measurement

2.1 Line Standard

2.2 End Standard

2.3 Wavelength Standard

3. Slip Gauges and its Accessories

3.1 Classification of Slip Gauges

3.2 Applications of Slip Gauges

3.3 Manufacturing of Slip Gauges

3.4 Wringing Process

3.5 Selecting Slip Gauges for Required Dimensions

3.6 Slip Gauges Accessories

3.7 Care of Slip Gauges

4. Length Bars (End Bars)

5.  Comparators

5.1 Applications of comparators

5.2 Requirement/Essential Characteristics of Good Comparator

5.3 Classification of Comparators

5.4 Principle of Mechanical Comparator

5.5 Dial Indicator

5.6 Sigma Comparator

5.7 Advantages of Mechanical Comparators

5.8 Pneumatic Comparator

5.9 Electrical Comparator – LVDT

5.10 Optical Comparator

3. Limits, Fits, Tolerances and Gauges

1. Introduction

2. Limits

3. Fits

3.1 Types of Fits

4. Tolerances

4.1 Methods of Specification/Representation of Tolerances

5. Terminology of Limits, Fits and Tolerances as per IS919–1993

6. Selective Assembly

7. Interchangeability

8. Hole and Shaft Basis System

8.1 Hole Basis System

8.2 Shaft Basis System

9. Concept of Limit Gauges

9.1 Types of Limit Gauges

10. Taylor’s Principle of Gauge Design

10.1 Identification of “GO” and “NO GO” End

11. Design of Plug Gauges and Ring Gauges

11.1 Plug Gauges

11.2 Snap Gauge

11.3 Ring Gauges

11.4 Progressive Plug Gauges

12. Multigauging and Inspection

4. Angular Measurement

1. Introduction

1.1 Instruments used for Angular Measurement

2. Universal Bevel Protractor

2.1 Angle Measurement

3. Sprit Level

3.1 Sensitivity of Spirit Level

3.2 Modern Design of Spirit Level

4. Sine Bar

4.1 Component is Small Size

4.2 Component is Heavy

4.3 Errors in Angle Measurement using Sine Bar

4.4 Limitation of Sine Bar

5. Sine Centre

5.1 Clinometer

5.2 Angle Gauges

6. Angle Dekkor

5. Screw Thread Measurements

1. Introduction

1.1 Screw Thread Terminology

2. Errors in Threads

2.1 Drunken Thread

2.2 Pitch Errors in Screw Threads

3. Measurement of External Thread

4. Measurement of Major Diameter

4.1 Measurement of Major Diameter using Bench Micrometer

4.2 Measurement of Major Diameter for Small Screw Workpieces

5. Measurement of Minor Diameter

5.1 Floating Carriage Micrometer Method

5.2 Using Optical Projection Method

6. Effective Diameter

6.1 Using Screw Thread Micrometer

6.2 Two Wire/Three Wire Method

7. Pitch

7.1 Using Screw Pitch Gauge

7.2 Pitch Meaning Machine

7.3 Optical Profile Projector Method

8. Thread Angle Measurement

9. Internal Thread Measurement

9.1 Major Diameter

9.2 Minor Diameter

9.3 Measurement of Effective Diameter

9.4 Measurement of Pitch of Internal Threads

10. Measurement using Floating Carriage Micrometer

6. Gear Measurement and Testing

1. Introduction

1.1 Types of Gears

1.2 Terminology of Spur Gear

1.3 Sources of Errors in Manufacturing Gears

2. Analytical and Functional Testing of Gears

2.1 Analytical Method

2.2 Functional (Rolling) Testing

3. Involute Tooth Profile

3.1 Involute Measuring using Straight Edge

3.2 Optical Projection Method

4. Measurement of Tooth Thickness

4.1 Constant Chord Method

4.2 Base Tangent Method

4.3 Gear Tooth Vernier Caliper (Chordal Thickness Method)

5. Measurement of Circular Pitch

6. Errors in Gears

6.1 Backlash

6.2 Runout

6.3 Composite Error

6.4 Concentricity

6.5 Parkinson’s Gear Tester

7. Measurement of Surface Finish

1. Introduction

1.1 Importance of Surface Finish

1.2 Factors Affecting the Surface Finish

1.3 Applications of Surface Finish

2. Important Terms Related to Surface Finish

3. Terms used for Analysis of Surface Finish

4. Symbols for Designation of Surface Finish on Drawings

5. Various Techniques of Analysis

5.1 Qualitative Analysis

5.2 Quantitative Analysis

8. Machine Tool Testing

1. Introduction

1.1 Types of Tests for Machine Tool Testing

2. Alignment Testing

3. Parallelism Checking

4. Straightness Checking

5. Flatness

6. Squareness Checking

7. True Running (Runout Checking)

8. Circularity

9. Coaxiallity

10. Roundness

11. Alignment Testing on Important Machine Tools

11.1 Alignment Tests on Lathe

11.2 Alignment Tests on Milling Machine

11.3 Alignment Tests on Drilling Machine

12. Interferrometry (Using Optical Flat)

13. Performance Test

9. Quality

1. Introduction

1.1 Quality - Definitions

1.2 Quality of Product and Services

1.3 Quality Characteristics

2. Important Stages of Quality

2.1 Quality of Design

2.2 Quality of Conformance

2.3 Quality of Performance

3. Concept of Reliability

3.1 Factors Affecting Reliability

3.2 Cost Considerations in Quality

3.3 Optimum Cost

4. Value of Quality

4.1 Balance between Cost of Quality and Value of Quality

4.2 Quality Assurance

4.3 Quality Control and Inspection

4.4 Inspection Planning

10. Total   Quality Measurement

1. Introduction

1.1 Principles of TQM

1.2 Benefits of TQM

2. Quality Circle

2.1 Important Characteristics of Quality Circle

2.2 Working of Quality Circle

3. Quality Audit

3.1 Concept of Audit Practices     

3.2 Lead Accessor Certification

4. Six Sigma – Statistical Concept

4.1 Methodology of Six Sigma

11. ISO 9000 Series and Other Standards

1. Introduction

2. Concept of ISO 9000

2.1 Important features of ISO 9000

3. ISO 9000 Series of Quality Standards

4. Elements of ISO 9000

4.1 Advantages of ISO 9000

4.2 Limitations of ISO 9000

4.3 Agencies for Guidelines about ISO 9000

5. ISO 14000 (QS 14000)

6. TS 16949

7. ISO Audit Procedure

12. Statistical Quality Control

1. Introduction

2. Basics of Statistical Concepts

2.1 Frequency Distribution

2.2 Statistical Measures

2.3 Normal Distribution Curve

3. Statistical Quality Control

3.1 Importance / Benefits / Objectives of SQC

4. Variable and Attribute Measurement

4.1 Variable Measurement

4.2 Attribute Measurement

5. Inherent and Assignable Sources of Variation

5.1 Variability

6. Control Charts

6.1 Types of Control Charts

6.2 Control Charts for Variables X and R Charts

6.3 Control Charts for Attributes p, np, C, U-Charts

7. Process Capability of Machine

7.1 Procedure of Calculating Process Capability

7.2 Important Cases of Process Capability (Rejection Area Possibilities)

7.3 Applications of Process Capability

7.4 Cp and Cpk Calculations

13. Acceptance Sampling

1. Introduction

1.1 Limitations of 100% Inspection

2. Sampling Inspection

2.1 Advantages/Merits

2.2 Disadvantages/Demerits

2.3  Comparison with 100% Inspection

2.4 Factors Affecting Sampling Inspection

3. Operating Characteristics Curve (O.C.)

4. Important Terms

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